Some, like Switzerland, have multiple languages spoken (French, German, Italian, Romansch). Multiculturalism can be a source of tension: Multi-ethnic rivalries (Albanians, Bosnians, Croats, Serbs) within the former country of Yugoslavia have caused bitter conflict.
This area is often called a shatter-belt because the once communist country split into five separate countries.
curve up the western edge of Europe and define the physical landscape of Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, Denmark), Finland, Iceland, Scotland, Ireland, the Brittany region of France, Spain, Portugal …
Northern Europe, France and the UK have in varying degrees tried to avoid it with programs such as job protection and generous leave for pregnant and nursing mothers, government funding of nursery schools, direct child support payments and other measures to reduce the economic opportunity costs of childbearing.
modification of latitudinal controls by land and water interaction i. Europe has a long history of human development and is considered the birthplace of Western Civilization: the result of classical civilizations, Christianity, the Renaissance and Reformation, the Enlightenment, and the Industrial and Scientific Revolutions a.
Greece: philosophy, democracy, roots of science, art and architecture b.
falling share of world’s population but continues to experience slow natural growth (birth rates lower than death rates; immigration prevents population loss) 2.
in last stage of Demographic Transition (or beyond): women in workforce, widespread contraception, shortage of affordable housing, some countries offer incentives to increase national growth 3. age-dependent boom and bust: A higher ratio of young dependants usually correlates with increased poverty.