Thus, by the turn of the century the differing political leanings of Calgary and Edmonton that persist to this day (that is, with Calgary being quite conservative by Canadian standards and Edmonton tending to be more liberal) were already well established.
Not surprisingly then, when the federal Liberal government admitted Alberta to Confederation in 1905, they named Edmonton the capital.
Both cities had teams in the Western Hockey League and Alberta Junior Hockey League.
Pro hockey did not return until the World Hockey Association arrived in 1972.
The short and sporadic nature of the Calgary WHA franchises made building meaningful rivalries more difficult.
The WHA itself was unstable and merged with the NHL in 1979.
Therefore, the economic and cultural origins of Calgary and its region, were created up by the NWMP and the CPR, not the HBC.
Because of the CPR line, Calgary's agricultural hinterland was settled much sooner, mostly by people of British, and particularly Scottish, origins but it also has an American influence because of the ranching culture brought into the region by American cowboys.
This in part accounts for the much larger concentration of head offices of large corporations in Calgary.
By contrast the plains cultures on the prairie to the south relied on the buffalo.
The predominant political force on the prairie during the fur trade, the Blackfoot Confederacy, would not allow the Hudson's Bay Company to establish itself within Blackfoot territory, preferring to ride to Edmonton House (established 1795) to trade.
Harvey Locke identifies a longstanding cultural divide in Alberta between the centre and north on one hand and the south on the other as a recurring theme in the province's history going back to pre-contact Aboriginal cultures.
The peoples of the boreal forest, and to a lesser extent, the aspen parkland, led a subarctic lifestyle which involved trapping fur-bearing animals and traveling by canoe, which made the region a natural fit for the fur trade.